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Owell KJ, Adams MH, Franklin KM, Baker CM. Changes in equine endometrial retinol-binding protein RNA during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy and with exogenous steroids. Biol Reprod. 1995;52:438?3. 88. McDowell KJ, Sharp DC, Fazleabas A, Robers RM, Bazer FW. Partial characterisation of the equine uteroferrin-like protein. J Reprod Fertil. 1982;32:329?4.Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take full advantage of:?In has received specific interest because it has been suggested to Convenient online submission ?Thorough peer review ?No space constraints or color figure charges ?Immediate publication on acceptance ?Inclusion in PubMed, CAS, Scopus and Google Scholar ?Research which is freely available for redistributionSubmit your manuscript at http://www.biomedcentral.com/submitImamura and Shigematsu Experimental Hematology Oncology (2015) 4:20 DOI 10.1186/s40164-015-0015-Experimental Hematology OncologyREVIEWOpen AccessAllogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: potential benefit of medium-dose etoposide conditioningMasahiro Imamura* and Akio ShigematsuAbstractThe outcomes of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with chemotherapy or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are unsatisfactory. Therefore, allogeneic (allo) HSCT has been applied to those patients in first complete remission (CR1), and has shown a long-term survival rate of approximately 50 . In terms of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen, fpsyg.2015.01413 higher dose of cyclophosphamide (CY) and total body irradiation (TBI) (the standard CY + TBI) has been generally applied to allo HSCT. Other MAC regimens such as busulfan-based or etoposide-based regimens have also been used. Among those, medium-dose etoposide (ETP) in addition to the standard CY + TBI conditioning regimen appears to be promising for allo HSCT in adult ALL when transplanted in ALL patients aged under 50 years in CR1 and also in CR2, showing an excellent outcome without increasing relapse or transplant-related mortality (TRM) rates. By contrast, reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have also been applied to adult ALL patients and favorable outcomes have been obtained; however, relapse and TRM rates remain high. Therefore, an allo HSCT conditioning regimen which deserves further study for adult ALL patients aged under 50 years in CR1 and CR2 appears to be medium-dose ETP + CY + TBI and RIC is suitable for patients aged over 50 years or for younger patients with comorbid conditions. On the contrary, new therapeutic strategies for adult ALL patients are increasingly utilized with better outcomes; namely, various tyrosine kinase inhibitors for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive ALL, human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical HSCT, and rstb.2013.0181 pediatric-inspired regimens for Ph-negative ALL. Therefore, the optimal treatment modality should be selected considering patient’s age, Ph-positivity, donor availability, risk classification, efficacy, and safety. Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Myeloablative conditioning regimen, Reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Total body irradiation, Haploidentical HSCT, Philadelphia chromosome, Tyrosine kinase inhibitorIntroduction Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of intractable hematological malignancies, showing a longterm survival rate of approximately 30 with a high incidence of relapse when treated with intensive chemotherapies [30, 53, 70, 74]. Allogeneic (allo) h.